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地球上最古老的creature!

时间:2019-3-13 16:36:12 作者:雅信博文翻译


    地球上最古老的生物中涵盖了动物、物种和微生物,看完后你一定觉得自己很年轻。可能有人会对名单吹毛求疵,以为其中某些生物不过区区百万年历史,但实际上它们都是相当久远的存在。那么地球上最古老的生物到底有哪些呢?现在雅信博文翻译公司为大家分享其中的5种生物。
1.Cyanobacteria  
蓝藻细菌
Age: 3.5 billion years old
年龄:35亿岁
The oldest known cyanobacteria fossils were found on Archaean rocks of western Australia. Cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, is a type of bacteria that uses photosynthesis to create energy. It is believed that this played a role in oxidizing the earth's atmosphere, making the planet more suitable for life as we know it.
已知的最古老的蓝藻菌化石在澳大利亚西部的太古岩中被发现。蓝藻细菌又名蓝绿藻,是一种能利用光合作用生成能量的细菌。人们认为这一过程促进了大气层中氧气的形成,使地球更加适宜已知生命生存。
2.Sponge  
海绵
Age: 580 million years old
年龄:5.8亿岁
ponges are from an ancient animal group whose lineage can be traced back to the beginnings of animal life. Fossils of glass sponges have been found in rocks inAustralia,China, andMongolia. Although about 90% of modern sponges are demosponges, fossilized remains of this type are less common than other types because their skeletons are composed of relatively soft spongin that does not fossilize well.
海绵源自一个原始的动物门,这个动物门的历史能追溯到生命起源。在澳大利亚、中国和蒙古境内的岩石中发现过玻璃海绵的化石。虽然现在所发现的海绵中约有90%都属于寻常海绵纲,但此类海绵化石比其他类型的更加罕见,因为它们的骨骼由相对柔软的海绵硬蛋白组成,不易形成化石。
3.Jellyfish  
水母
Age: 505 million years old
年龄:5.05亿岁
Jellyfish belong to the group of animals called Cnidaria or Coelenterata. This group includes corals, hydras, jellyfish, Portuguese men-of-war, sea anemones, sea pens, sea whips, and sea fans. They are hard to fossilize, as they're made of mostly water, but fossils suggest they are even older than previously thought.
水母与珊瑚、水螅、僧帽水母、海葵、海鳃、海鞭以及海扇同属刺胞动物门,又名腔肠动物门。它们的身体几乎由水组成,难以形成化石,不过现有的化石记录表明它们比我们预想的更加古老。
4.Horseshoe Crab  
马蹄蟹
Age: 450 million years old
年龄:4.5亿岁
Horseshoe crabs are considered "living fossils." The earliest horseshoe crab fossils are dated to the Ordovician period. These marine arthropods live primarily near shallow ocean waters with soft, sandy or muddy bottoms. Their populations have been in decline due to habitat destruction and over harvesting.
马蹄蟹素有活化石之称,最古老的马蹄蟹化石可追溯到奥陶纪。这类海洋节肢动物主要栖息在柔软的砂质或泥质底浅海区。由于栖息地遭到破坏以及过度捕捞,它们的数量一直在减少。
5.Coelacanth  
腔棘鱼
Age: 400 million years old
年龄:4亿岁
A rare order of fish, coelacanths are more closely related to lungfish, reptiles and even mammals than to common ray-finned fish. Live species have been discovered as recently as 1998.
腔棘鱼是一种罕见的鱼,相较常见的辐鳍鱼,它们与肺鱼、爬行动物甚至哺乳动物才是近亲。最近一次发现活体腔棘鱼是在1998年。

新奇的香水事件

新奇的香水事件吸引了现在很多人的关注,快随石家庄雅信博文翻译公司一起来看看吧!

Doctors inCanadahave called for a ban on the use of perfumes and aftershaves in hospitals and clinics. They say the chemicals in the scents can trigger asthma and allergies. Research shows that over half of asthma attacks are caused by irritants such as powerful smells. Besides perfumes and aftershaves, these can include cigarette smoke, cleaning fluids and other strong fragrances and odours. Dr Ken Flegel and Dr James Martin of McGill University inCanadawrote about the dangers of smells in hospital in the Canadian Medical Association Journal. They said: "Hospital environments free from artificial scents should become a uniform policy, promoting the safety of patients, staff and visitors alike."
Strong smells affect many of us in one way or another. Around a third of people say they are physically affected by artificial scents worn by others. The doctors noted that this should be a serious concern in all hospitals. They wrote: "While artificial scents are designed to make us more attractive, they may result in unintended harm to those who are vulnerable. There is emerging evidence that asthma, in some cases, is primarily aggravated by artificial scents." They added that: "This is particularly concerning in hospitals, where vulnerable patients with asthma or other upper airway or skin sensitivities are concentrated." They warn that scents in hospitals can make these patients' condition worse.
在加拿大,议员呼吁禁止使用香水和须后水。他们表示,香味剂中的化学物质会引起哮喘和过敏。研究表明超过半数哮喘都是由刺激性气味刺激物引起的。除了香水和须后水,还有香烟、清洁剂以及其他刺激性气味。在加拿大《医学协会杂志》上,麦吉尔大学的Ken FlegelJames Martin医生对香水的危害进行了描述。他们称:无人工香味医院应该成为统一的政策,可以保证病人,工作人员和探访者的安全。
刺激性气味会对我们大多数人造成各种各样的影响。有大约三分之一的民众表示,他们遭受过他人香水气味的侵扰。医生特别提到这是所有医院面临的重大问题。他们写到:香水的目的原本是要让人们变得更有吸引力,但同时它也会无意间伤害到易感人群。越来越多的证据表明,香水是导致哮喘发作的主要原因。他们补充说:这在医院尤为让人担心,因为医院是哮喘,上呼吸道感染以及皮肤敏感人群的集中区。他们警告称,医院中的香水气味会加重病患病况。